Python通用数据格式转换工具

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已独立成项目在github上面 dataformat


涉及模块 os, getopt, sys

需求

在进行hadoop测试时,需要造大量数据,例如某个表存在56列,但实际程序逻辑只适用到某几列,我们造的数据 也只需要某几列

构造几列数据,转化为对应数据表格式

源代码

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
#dataformat.py
#   wklken@yeah.net
#this script change data from your source to the dest data format
#2011-08-05 created version0.1
#2011-10-29 add row-row mapping ,default row value .rebuild all functions. version0.2
#next:add data auto generate by re expression
#2011-12-17 add new functions, add timestamp creator.  version0.3
#2012-03-08 rebuild functions. version0.4
#2012-06-22 add function to support multi output separators
#2012-07-11 fix bug  line 44,add if
#2012-09-03 rebuild functions,add help msg! version0.5
#2012-11-08 last version edited by lingyue.wkl
#           this py: https://github.com/wklken/pytools/blob/master/data_process/dataformat.py
 
import os
import sys
import getopt
import time
import re
 
#read file and get each line without n
def read_file(path):
    f = open(path, “r”)
    lines = f.readlines()
    f.close()
    return [line[:1] for line in lines ]
 
#处理一行,转为目标格式,返回目标行
def one_line_proc(parts, total, ft_map, outsp, empty_fill, fill_with_sno):
    outline = []
    #step1.获取每一列的值
    for i in range(1, total + 1):
        if i in ft_map:
            fill_index = ft_map[i]
            #加入使用默认值列  若是以d开头,后面是默认,否则取文件对应列 done
            if fill_index.startswith(“d”):
                #列默认值暂不开启时间戳处理
                outline.append(fill_index[1:])
            else:
                outline.append(handler_specal_part(parts[int(fill_index) 1]))
        else:
            #-s 选项生效,填充列号
            if fill_with_sno:
                outline.append(str(i))
            #否则,填充默认填充值
            else:
                outline.append(empty_fill)
 
    #step2.组装加入输出分隔符,支持多分隔符
    default_outsp = outsp.get(0,“t”)
    result = []
    outsize = len(outline)
    for i in range(outsize):
        result.append(outline[i])
        if i  outsize 1:
            result.append(outsp.get(i + 1, default_outsp))
    #step3.拼成一行返回
    return .join(result)
 
#处理入口,读文件,循环处理每一行,写出
#输入数据分隔符默认t,输出数据默认分隔符t
def process(inpath, total, to, outpath, insp, outsp, empty_fill, fill_with_sno, error_line_out):
    ft_map = {}
    #有效输入字段数(去除默认值后的)
    in_count = 0
    used_row = []
    #step1-3相当于数据预处理,解析传入选项
 
    #step1 处理映射列 不能和第二步合并
    for to_row in to:
        if r“:” not in to_row and len(to_row.split(“:”)) == 2:
            used_row.append(int(to_row.split(“:”)[1]))
        if r“=” not in str(to_row) and len(str(to_row).split(“=”)) == 2:
            pass
        else:
            in_count += 1
 
    #step2 处理默认值列
    for to_row in to:
        #处理默认值列
        if r“=” not in str(to_row) and len(str(to_row).split(“=”)) == 2:
            ft_map.update({int(to_row.split(“=”)[0]): “d”+to_row.split(“=”)[1]})
            continue
        #处理列列映射
        elif r“:” not in to_row and len(to_row.split(“:”)) == 2:
            ft_map.update({int(to_row.split(“:”)[0]): to_row.split(“:”)[1]})
            continue
        #其他普通列
        else:
            to_index = 0
            for i in range(1, total + 1):
                if i not in used_row:
                    to_index = i
                    break
            ft_map.update({int(to_row): str(to_index)})
            used_row.append(to_index)
 
    #setp3 处理输出分隔符   outsp  0=t,1=    0代表默认的,其他前面带列号的代表指定的
    if len(outsp) > 1 and len(outsp.split(“,”)) > 1:
        outsps = re.findall(r“d=.+?”, outsp)
        outsp = {}
        for outsp_kv in  outsps:
            k,v = outsp_kv.split(“=”)
            outsp.update({int(k): v})
    else:
        outsp = {0: outsp}
 
    #step4 开始处理每一行
    lines = read_file(inpath)
    f = open(outpath, “w”)
    result = []
    for line in lines:
        #多个输入分隔符情况,使用正则切分成列
        if len(insp.split(“|”)) > 0:
            parts = re.split(insp, line)
        #否则使用正常字符串切分成列
        else:
            parts = line.split(insp)
 
        #正常的,切分后字段数大于等于配置的选项个数
        if len(parts) >= in_count:
            outline = one_line_proc(parts, total, ft_map, outsp, empty_fill, fill_with_sno)
            result.append(outline + “n”)
        #不正常的,列数少于配置
        else:
            #若配置了-e 输出,否则列数不符的记录过滤
            if error_line_out:
                result.append(line + “n”)
 
    #step5 输出结果
    f.writelines(result)
    f.close()
 
#特殊的处理入口,处理维度为每一行,目前只有时间处理
def handler_specal_part(part_str):
    #timestamp 时间处理
    #时间列,默认必须 TS数字=时间
    if part_str.startswith(“TS”) and “=” in part_str:
        ts_format = {8: “%Y%m%d”,
                     10: “%Y-%m-%d”,
                     14: “%Y%m%d%H%M%S”,
                     19: “%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”}
        to_l = 0
        #step1 确认输出的格式 TS8 TS10 TS14 TS19
        if part_str[2] != “=”:
            to_l = int(part_str[2:part_str.index(“=”)])
 
        part_str = part_str.split(“=”)[1].strip()
        interval = 0
        #step2 存在时间+-的情况 确认加减区间
        if “+” in part_str:
            inputdate = part_str.split(“+”)[0].strip()
            interval = int(part_str.split(“+”)[1].strip())
        elif “-“ in part_str:
            parts = part_str.split(“-“)
            if len(parts) == 2: #20101020 – XX
                inputdate = parts[0].strip()
                interval = int(parts[1].strip())
            elif len(parts) == 3: #2010-10-20
                inputdate = part_str
            elif len(parts) == 4: #2010-10-20 – XX
                inputdate = “-“.join(parts[:1])
                interval = int(parts[1])
            else:
                inputdate = part_str
        else:
            inputdate = part_str.strip()
        #step3 将原始时间转为目标时间
        part_str = get_timestamp(inputdate, ts_format, interval)
 
        #step4 如果定义了输出格式,转换成目标格式,返回
        if to_l > 0:
            part_str = time.strftime(ts_format.get(to_l), time.localtime(int(part_str)))
    return part_str
 
#将时间由秒转化为目标格式
def get_timestamp(inputdate, ts_format, interval=0):
    if “now()” in inputdate:
        inputdate = time.strftime(“%Y%m%d%H%M%S”)
    inputdate = inputdate.strip()
    try:
        size = len(inputdate)
        if size in ts_format:
            ts = time.strptime(inputdate, ts_format.get(size))
        else:
            print “the input date and time expression error,only allow ‘YYYYmmdd[HHMMSS]’ or ‘YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’  “
            sys.exit(0)
    except:
        print “the input date and time expression error,only allow ‘YYYYmmdd[HHMMSS]’ or ‘YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS’  “
        sys.exit(0)
    return str(int(time.mktime(ts)) + interval)
 
#打印帮助信息
def help_msg():
    print(“功能:原数据文件转为目标数据格式”)
    print(“选项:”)
    print(“t -i inputfilepath  [必输,input, 原文件路径]”)
    print(“t -t n              [必输,total, n为数字,目标数据总的域个数]”)
    print(“t -a ‘1,3,4’        [必输,array, 域编号字符串,逗号分隔。指定域用原数据字段填充,未指定用’0’填充]”)
    print(“t                          -a ‘3,5=abc,6:2’  第5列默认值abc填充,第6列使用输入的第1列填充,第3列使用输入第1列填充”)
    print(“t -o outputfilepath [可选,output, 默认为 inputfilepath.dist ]”)
    print(“t -F ‘FS’           [可选,field Sep,原文件域分隔符,默认为t,支持多分隔符,eg.’t|||’ ]”)
    print(“t -P ‘OFS’          [可选,out FS,输出文件的域分隔符,默认为t,可指定多个,多个需指定序号=分隔符,逗号分隔,默认分隔符序号0 ]”)
    print(“t -f ‘fill_str’     [可选,fill,未选列的填充值,默认为空 ]”)
    print(“t -s                [可选,serial number,当配置时,-f无效,使用列号填充未指派的列]”)
    print(“t -e                [可选,error, 源文件列切分不一致行/空行/注释等,会被直接输出,正确行按原逻辑处理]”)
    sys.exit(0)
 
#判断某个参数必须被定义
def must_be_defined(param, map, error_info):
    if param not in map:
       print error_info
       sys.exit(1)
 
#程序入口,读入参数,执行
def main():
    #init default value
    insp = “t”
    outsp = “t”
    empty_fill =
    fill_with_sno = False
    error_line_out = False
    #handle options
    try:
        opts,args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:],“F:P:t:a:i:o:f:hse”)
 
        for op,value in opts:
          if op in (“-h”, “-H”, “–help”):
            help_msg()
          if op == “-i”:
            inpath = value
          elif op == “-o”:
            outpath = value
          elif op == “-t”:
            total = int(value)
          elif op == “-a”:
            to = value.split(“,”)
          elif op == “-F”:
            insp = value.decode(“string_escape”)
          elif op == “-P”:
            outsp = value.decode(“string_escape”)
          elif op == “-f”:
            empty_fill = value
          elif op == “-s”:
            fill_with_sno = True
          elif op == “-e”:
            error_line_out = True
        if len(opts)  3:
          print(sys.argv[0]+” : the amount of params must great equal than 3″)
          print(“Command : ./dataformat.py -h”)
          sys.exit(1)
 
    except getopt.GetoptError:
        print(sys.argv[0]+” : params are not defined well!”)
        print(“Command : ./dataformat.py -h”)
        sys.exit(1)
 
    params_map = dir()
 
    must_be_defined(‘inpath’, params_map, sys.argv[0]+” : -i param is needed,input file path must define!”)
    must_be_defined(‘total’, params_map, sys.argv[0]+” : -t param is needed,the fields of result file must define!”)
    must_be_defined(‘to’, params_map, sys.argv[0]+” : -a param is needed,must assign the field to put !”)
 
    if not os.path.exists(inpath):
        print(sys.argv[0]+” file : %s is not exists”%inpath)
        sys.exit(1)
 
    if ‘outpath’ not in dir():
        outpath = inpath+“.dist”
 
    process(inpath, total, to, outpath, insp, outsp, empty_fill, fill_with_sno, error_line_out)
 
if __name__ ==“__main__”:
    main()

使用说明

功能:可指定输入分隔,输出分隔,无配置字段填充,某列默认值,可按顺序填充,也可乱序映射填充

输入:输入文件路径

选项:

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i path
必设
输入文件路径
 
t n
必设
目标数据表总列数
 
a r1,r2
必设
将要填充的列号列表,可配置默认值,可配置映射
 
o path
可选
输出文件路径,默认为 输入文件路径.dist
 
F IFS
可选
输入文件中字段域分隔符,默认t
 
P OFS
可选
输出文件中字段域分隔符,默认t
 
f “”
可选
指定未配置列的填充内容,默认为空
 
h
单独
查看帮助信息

列填充的配置示例:

普通用法【最常用】

命令:

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./dataformat.py i in_file t 65 a 22,39,63 F ^I P ^A f 0

说明:

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in_file中字段是以t分隔的[可不配F,使用默认]
in_file的第1,2,3列分别填充到in_file.dist[use default]的第22,39,63
in_file.dist65列,以^A分隔,未配置列以0填充
a中顺序与源文件列序有关,若a 39,22,63 则是将第1列填充到第39列,第二列填充到22列,第3列填充到63

列默认值用法:【需要对某些列填充相同的值,但不想在源文件中维护】

命令:

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./dataformat.py i in_file t 30 a 3=tag_1,9,7,12=0.0 o out_file

说明:

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in_file以t分隔,输出out_file以t分隔
in_file的第1,2列填充到out_file的第9列,第7
out_file共30列,第3列均用字符串”tag_1”填充,第12列用0.0填充,其他未配置列为空
注意:默认值 的取值,若是使用到等号和冒号,需转义,加 = :

列乱序映射:

命令:

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./dataformat.py i in_file t 56 a 3:2,9,5:3,1=abc,11

说明:

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分隔,输入,输出,同上…..
冒号前面为输出文件列号,后面为输入文件列号
目标文件第3列用输入文件第2列填充,目标文件第5列用输入文件第3列填充
目标文件第一列均填充“abc
目标文件第9列用输入文件第1列填充,第11列用输入文件第4列填充【未配置映射,使用从头开始还没有被用过的列】
脚本会对简单的字段数量等映射逻辑进行检测,复杂最好全配上,使用默认太抽象

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