Python学习之socket模块

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Python的socket模块为操作系统的socket实现提供了一个python接口。

In [168]: import socket

 

In [169]: s=socket.socket()

 

In [170]: s.connect((“127.0.0.1”,80))

 

In [171]: s.send(“GET / HTTP/1.1\n\n”)

Out[171]: 16

In [172]: s.recv(200)

Out[172]: ‘HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request\r\nServer: nginx\r\nDate: Mon, 21 Jul 2014 02:34:14 GMT\r\nContent-Type: text/html\r\nContent-Length: 166\r\nConnection: close\r\n\r\n\r\n400 Bad Request\r\n<b'

In [173]: s.close()

先创建一个名为s的socket对象,然后连接到本地的Nginx服务器,这里要注意一下connect只能带一个参数,如果是IP和端口对需要用括号括住。然后通过send()函数发送一个HTTP请求,然后接收服务端响应的前200个字节。最后关闭socket连接

#/usr/bin/python

import socket

import re

import sys

 

def check_server(address, port):

    s=socket.socket()

    print “Attempting to connect to %s on port %s” %(address,port)

    try:

      s.connect((address,port))

      print “Connected to %s on port %s” %(address,port)

      return True

    except socket.error,e:

      print “Connection to %s on port %s failed: %s” %(address,port,e)

      return False

 

if __name__ == ‘__main__’:

    from optparse import OptionParser

    parser = OptionParser()

    parser.add_option(“-a”, “–address”, dest=”address”,default=’localhost’, help=”Address for the server”, metavar=”ADDRESS”)

    parser.add_option(“-p”, “–port”, dest=”port”,type=”int”, default=80,help=”PORT for server”,metavar=”PORT”)

 

    (options, args) = parser.parse_args()

 

    print ‘options: %s,args: %s’ %(options,args)

    check=check_server(options.address,options.port)

    print ‘check server returned %s’ %check

    sys.exit(not check)

以上程序用于探测远程主机的端口状态,通过socket的connect()函数去尝试连接远程主机的给定端口。后面主要用到optparse模块添加选项。

$ python  tcp_port_checker.py -a 10.10.41.20 -p 80

options: {‘port’: 80, ‘address’: ‘10.10.41.20’},args: []

Attempting to connect to 10.10.41.20 on port 80

Connected to 10.10.41.20 on port 80

check server returned True

$ python  tcp_port_checker.py -a 10.10.41.20 -p 80 && echo “SUCCESS”

options: {‘port’: 80, ‘address’: ‘10.10.41.20’},args: []

Attempting to connect to 10.10.41.20 on port 80

Connected to 10.10.41.20 on port 80

check server returned True

SUCCESS

$ python  tcp_port_checker.py -a 10.10.41.20 -p 81 || echo “FAILURE”

options: {‘port’: 81, ‘address’: ‘10.10.41.20’},args: []

Attempting to connect to 10.10.41.20 on port 81

Connection to 10.10.41.20 on port 81 failed: [Errno 111] Connection refused

check server returned False

FAILURE

一个web server的80端口开放并不能代表这台服务器上就运行着web服务,还需要通过HTTP响应返回值来判断。

#/usr/bin/python

import socket

import re

import sys

 

def check_webserver(address,port,resource):

    if not resource.startswith(‘/’):

      resource = ‘/’ + resource

    request_string = “GET %s HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: %s\r\n\r\n” %(resource,address)

    print ‘HTTP request:’

    print ‘|||%s|||’ %request_string

 

    s=socket.socket()

    print “Attempting to connect to %s on port %s” %(address,port)

    try:

      s.connect((address,port))

      print “Connected to %s on port %s” %(address,port)

      s.send(request_string)

      rsp=s.recv(100)

      print “Received 100 bytes of HTTP response”

      print ‘|||%s|||’ %rsp

    except socket.error,e:

      print “Connection to %s on port %s failed: %s” %(address,port,e)

      print “Closing the connection”

      s.close()

 

    lines=rsp.splitlines()

    print “First line of HTTP response: %s” %lines[0]

    try:

      version,status,message=re.split(r’\s+’,lines[0],2)

      print ‘Version: %s, Status: %s, Message: %s’  %(version,status,message)

    except ValueError:

      print ‘Failed to split status line’

      return False

    if status in [‘200′,’301’]:

      print ‘Success – status was %s’ %status

      return True

    else:

      print ‘Status was %s’ %status

      return False

 

if __name__ == ‘__main__’:

    from optparse import OptionParser

    parser = OptionParser()

    parser.add_option(“-a”,”–address”,dest=”address”,default=’localhost’,help=”ADDRESS for webserver”,metavar=”ADDRESS”)

    parser.add_option(“-p”,”–port”,dest=”port”,type=”int”,default=80,help=”PORT for webserver”,metavar=”PORT”)

    parser.add_option(“-r”,”–resource”,dest=”resource”,default=’index.html’,help=”RESOURCE for webserver”,metavar=”RESOURCE”)

    (options,args)=parser.parse_args()

    print ‘options: %s,args: %s’ %(options,args)

    check=check_webserver(options.address,options.port,options.resource)

    print ‘check_webserver returned %s’ %check

    sys.exit(not check)

以上程序主要通过check_webserver函数去探测HTTP服务,检测端口是否可以连接,并发送HTTP请求,通过web server的返回值进行判断。

$ python tcp_port_checker2.py -a 10.10.41.20 -p 80 -r index.php

options: {‘resource’: ‘index.php’, ‘port’: 80, ‘address’: ‘10.10.41.20’},args: []

HTTP request:

|||GET /index.php HTTP/1.1

Host: 10.10.41.20

 

|||

Attempting to connect to 10.10.41.20 on port 80

Connected to 10.10.41.20 on port 80

Received 100 bytes of HTTP response

|||HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found

Server: nginx

Date: Tue, 22 Jul 2014 03:24:17 GMT

|||tent-Type: text/html

Closing the connection

First line of HTTP response: HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found

Version: HTTP/1.1, Status: 404, Message: Not Found

Status was 404

check_webserver returned False

《Python开发技术详解》.( 周伟,宗杰).[高清PDF扫描版+随书视频+代码] http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-11/92693.htm

Python脚本获取Linux系统信息 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-08/88531.htm

Python下使用MySQLdb模块 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-06/63620.htm

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